In this study, Richter, Mathews, Nonterah, and Masilela examined childhood sexual abuse of boys in a longitudinal cohort in South Africa, with data on abuse collected at six age points between 11 and 18 years. Potential personal and social vulnerability of male sexual abuse victims was explored and mental health outcomes of sexually abused boys were examined at age 22–23 years. Reports of all sexual activity increased with age and sexual coercion decreased with age. Sexual coercion was perpetrated most frequently by similar aged peers, and boys who experienced childhood sexual abuse tended to be smaller (shorter) and from poorer families. No relationships to measured childhood intelligence, pubertal stage, marital status of mother or presence of the father were found. There was no significant association between reports of childhood sexual abuse and mental health in adulthood and when personal and social vulnerabilities were taken into account.