Child violence experiences in institutionalised/orphanage care – Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children. In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some countries have closed institutions down –driven by findings that cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care. Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay.